systemd has long been the de-facto standard for managing services and their dependencies in linux. While its good to run applications within containers, to provide a certain functionality and to avoid installing packages on the host OS, the availability and reliability has been an issue. Before you go ahead and start using an application packaged inside that container, you need to make sure that container is up and running. And what if your application consists of multiple containers which needed to be started in a certain order. In fact, there is a growing set of applications which are available as containers so that users can bypass all the headaches associated with installation and setup. So there is a use case for the systemd to take control and manage containers as native services.Read More »
k3d is a lighweight wrapper to run k3s with docker. Unlike k3s, docker containers can be used to create Kubernetes nodes. It makes it useful to create local multi node clusters on the same machine like kind. This is particularly useful for devs and testers alike, as they would not need to deal with complication of setting up multi node Kubernetes setup.
Installation and Setup for k3d
One of the pre-requisites for k3d to work is docker. You can refer official instructions for same or one of our previous posts for installing docker in rootless mode.Read More »
CRIU (stands for Checkpoint and Restore in Userspace) is a utility that enables you to set a checkpoint on a running container or an individual application and store its state to disk. You can use data saved to restore the container after a reboot at the same point in time it was checkpointed. It is possible to perform operations like container live migration, snapshots, remote debugging etc.
CRIU is integrated by major container engines such as Docker, Podman, LXC/LXD, OpenVZ, etc for implementing associated functionality. It is also available in respective package repositories for linux distributions.Read More »
buildah is a open source tool which can be used to build OCI compliant container images without using docker engine. It can also be run in a rootless mode, thereby reducing the attack surface area and also inside a container image itself.
You can use
buildah to built container images from existing container images, from Dockerfiles and from scratch (read empty images) as well. OCI images built using
buildah are portable and can be run on different hosts as well with different container engines such as CRI-O, Podman, Docker Engine, etc.
Kind is a tool which can be used for running local multi node Kubernetes clusters. Kind was primarily designed for testing Kubernetes itself and associated extensions, but may be used for local development or CI. With the Kind, you can spin up a multi node Kubernetes cluster in couple of minutes, perform your work and then wind it down. And nobody need to worry about the Bill! Starting with kind 0.11.0, Rootless Docker and Rootless Podman can be used as the node provider of kind. Its not running kubernetes in rootless mode as some component of kubernetes stack cannot run rootless yet, however it is certainly a step in that direction.Read More »
Historically, Docker Engine or Docker has always required root privileges to run. This is because certain features like namespaces or mount points which forms the basis of Docker filesystems have always required elevated privileges. You may have started running docker daemon or dockerd in context of another user, but that user needs to be made part of Docker Group, which was assigned root privileges during installation time. Rootless mode means running the Docker daemon and even containers as an unprivileged user to protect the root user from future attacks on the host system.Read More »
So you might ask – what does dockerd do? As its turns out, it does quite a lot of thing actually!! Things like networking, logging, docker-swarm, service discovery, DNS implementation, authentication, image management, storage management etc. It also exposes API to listen to requests from docker cli, you know the tool that decides how we interact with docker engine, in our daily lives. Someday these functionalities might be spun off to their own smaller counterparts, but for now these are all the things that dockerd does on a daily basis. Not only this, there are two different versions of docker engine – docker community edition (or docker CE) and docker enterprise edition (or docker EE).Read More »
So far we have discussed about runc, containerd in detail and their relative counterparts. We now need to take a look at the component called shim. The shim is integral to the implementation of daemonless containers and separating the low-level container runtimes such as crun or runc from high-level container runtimes such as containerd. As we discussed earlier that containerd uses runc to create new containers. In fact, it forks a new instance of runc for every container it creates. However, once each container is created, the parent runc process exits. This means we can run hundreds of containers without having to run hundreds of runc instances.Read More »